Haemorrhage

HEALTHMEDICAL

HAEMORRHAGE AND ITS MANAGEMENT

Haemorrhage means the loss of blood from the vascular system. It associates with an absolute reduction in the circulating blood volume. This can also result in a critical condition.

CLASSIFICATION OF HAEMORRHAGE:-

According to the SOURCE OF HAEMORRHAGE, it is classified in two ways:-

  • Haemorrhage  – External and  Internal
    1. External — revealed outside or seen externally
    2. Internal — concealed or not seen outside.
      • Sometimes concealed can be external also.
  • It may be- 1. Arterial, 2. Venous and 3. Capillary
    1. Arterial —
      • When it comes from an artery.
      • Defines by bright red colour.
    2. Venous —
      • one which comes from a vein.
      • characterized by dark red colour
      • Blood loss is also fatal in this case. particularly when large veins are damaged.
    3. Capillary —
      • is one in which it comes from capillaries.
      • blood is bright red. It oozes rather than flows out.

According to the TIME OF APPEARANCE it can be classified into: 1. Primary, 2. Reactionary and 3. Secondary.

  • Primary – occurs mainly at the time of injury or operation.
  • Reactionary –
    • This is one that occurs within 24 hours of injury or operation.
    • due to the collection of blood clots or ligature slipping.
    • can occur due to the rise of blood pressure.
  • Secondary —
    • This occurs mainly after 7 to 14 days of injury or operation.
    • due to infection of part of the arterial wall.

CAUSES:-

  1. WOUNDS
  2. FRACTURE OF LARGE BONES
  3. INTRAOPERATIVE PERIOD
  4. ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT
  5. BLUNT TRAUMATIC INJURY
  6. INVASIVE DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
  7. ANATOMICAL DEFECTS
  8. CANINE BITE OR ANY ANIMAL BITE
  9. CRUSH INJURY
  10. VARICOSE BLEEDING

SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HAEMORRHAGE:

Early signs & symptoms

  • Restlessness
  • Anxiety
  • Feeling faint
  • Coldness ( temp.slightly subnormal)
  • Pallor
  • Patient feels thirsty

Signs & symptoms after severe hemorrhage

  • Extreme pallor
  • Air hunger
  • Rapid thready pulse or low palpable pulse
  • Extremely low blood pressure(low B P)
  • Extreme thirst
  • Diminished urine output
  • Blindness tinnitus & coma occur prior death

TREATMENT:-

It consists of two parts —

A. To stop blood loss and

B. To restore blood volume. It can be by:

  • blood transfusion.
  • infusion of crystalloid solution.
  • infusion of plasma or plasma substitutes.

FIRST AID IN CASE OF SEVERE BLEEDING:

bleeding first aid
  • Brings the sides of the wound together & press it firmly.
  • Press on the pressure point for 10-15min to stop bleeding.
  • Place the person in a comfortable position. raise the injured part & reassure him.
  • Apply a clean pad larger than the wound. Press it firmly with the palm until bleeding stops or become less.
  • If bleeding continues do not remove off original dressing. But add more pads on it. Try somehow to stop it.
  • Bandage, it but not too tightly.

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