HAEMORRHAGE AND ITS MANAGEMENT
Haemorrhage means the loss of blood from the vascular system. It associates with an absolute reduction in the circulating blood volume. This can also result in a critical condition.
CLASSIFICATION OF HAEMORRHAGE:-
According to the SOURCE OF HAEMORRHAGE, it is classified in two ways:-
- Haemorrhage – External and Internal
- External — revealed outside or seen externally
- Internal — concealed or not seen outside.
- Sometimes concealed can be external also.
- It may be- 1. Arterial, 2. Venous and 3. Capillary
- Arterial —
- When it comes from an artery.
- Defines by bright red colour.
- Venous —
- one which comes from a vein.
- characterized by dark red colour
- Blood loss is also fatal in this case. particularly when large veins are damaged.
- Capillary —
- is one in which it comes from capillaries.
- blood is bright red. It oozes rather than flows out.
- Arterial —
According to the TIME OF APPEARANCE it can be classified into: 1. Primary, 2. Reactionary and 3. Secondary.
- Primary – occurs mainly at the time of injury or operation.
- Reactionary –
- This is one that occurs within 24 hours of injury or operation.
- due to the collection of blood clots or ligature slipping.
- can occur due to the rise of blood pressure.
- Secondary —
- This occurs mainly after 7 to 14 days of injury or operation.
- due to infection of part of the arterial wall.
- FRACTURE OF LARGE BONES
- INTRAOPERATIVE PERIOD
- ROAD TRAFFIC ACCIDENT
- BLUNT TRAUMATIC INJURY
- INVASIVE DIAGNOSTIC PROCEDURES
- ANATOMICAL DEFECTS
- CANINE BITE OR ANY ANIMAL BITE
- CRUSH INJURY
- VARICOSE BLEEDING
SIGNS AND SYMPTOMS OF HAEMORRHAGE:
Early signs & symptoms
- Feeling faint
- Coldness ( temp.slightly subnormal)
- Patient feels thirsty
Signs & symptoms after severe hemorrhage
- Extreme pallor
- Air hunger
- Rapid thready pulse or low palpable pulse
- Extremely low blood pressure(low B P)
- Extreme thirst
- Diminished urine output
- Blindness tinnitus & coma occur prior death
It consists of two parts —
A. To stop blood loss and
B. To restore blood volume. It can be by:
- blood transfusion.
- infusion of crystalloid solution.
- infusion of plasma or plasma substitutes.
- Brings the sides of the wound together & press it firmly.
- Press on the pressure point for 10-15min to stop bleeding.
- Place the person in a comfortable position. raise the injured part & reassure him.
- Apply a clean pad larger than the wound. Press it firmly with the palm until bleeding stops or become less.
- If bleeding continues do not remove off original dressing. But add more pads on it. Try somehow to stop it.
- Bandage, it but not too tightly.