BURNS | WHAT IS BURN? | TYPES
Burns are wound that are cause because of exposure to.:
- Excessive Heat
- Fire / Steam
TYPES OF BURNS:
- THERMAL: caused due to exposure to a hot object or flame.
- CHEMICAL: exposure to acid, alkali, or organic substance.
- ELECTRICAL: cause due to the conversion of electrical energy into heat energy. The extent depends on.:
- the type of current,
- a pathway of flow,
- local tissue resistance, and
- lastly on the duration of contact.
- RADIATION: consequently result from radiant energy transfer to the body. Thus resulting in the production of cellular toxins.
BURN WOUND ASSESSMENT
- Classified according to depth of injury & extent of body surface area involved.
- Burns wounds differentiated depending on the level of dermis and subcutaneous tissue involved
- superficial( first – degree)
- deep ( second-degree )
- full-thickness( third and fourth degree )
SUPERFICIAL BURNS (FIRST DEGREE):-
- Epidermal tissue only affected.
- Erythema. blanching on pressure. mild swelling. no vesicles or blister initially.
- Not much life-threatening. unless a large area involved.
- i.e., sunburn
DEEP (SECOND DEGREE):-
- Involves epidermis and the deepest layer of the dermis.
- Fluid-filled vesicles.: red, shiny, wet, severe pain.
- Hospitalization is required if burn involves over 25% of the body surface.
- i.e., tar burn, flame.
FULL THICKNESS (THIRD/FOURTH DEGREE):-
- Destruction of all skin layers.
- It requires immediate hospitalization during this type of burn.
- As a result it is much more life fatal.
- Dry, waxy, white, rubbery, or hard skin without pain.
- Exposure to flames, electricity, or chemicals. can cause 3rd-degree burns.
CALCULATION OF BURNED BODY SURFACE AREA:
RULE OF NINES:-
- Head & Neck = 9%
- Each upper extremity (Arms) = 9%
- Each lower extremity (Legs) = 18%
- Anterior trunk = 18%
- Posterior trunk = 18%
- Genitalia (perineum) = 1%
CHANGES OCCURING DUE TO BURNS:-
- Circulatory disarrangement occurs at the burn site. immediately after a burn injury.
- Blood flow ceases or decreases because of a constricted blood vessel.
- Constriction is therefore caused by the release of chemicals by macrophages.
- Thrombosis of blood vessels can occur. also by further causing necrosis.
- Fluid shift
- Curling’s Ulcer
- Fluid imbalances
- Fluid remobilization
PHASES OF BURN INJURIES:-
- Emergent (24-48 hrs)
- Determine the size and depth of burn injury by assessing skin.
- The size of injury is firstly estimated in comparison to the total body surface area (TBSA).
- For e.g., a burn that involves 40% of the TBSA is a 40% burn.
- Use the rule of nines for the patient whose weight is in normal proportion to their heights without a doubt.