HEALTH
BURNS | WHAT IS BURN? | TYPES

BURNS | WHAT IS BURN? | TYPES

Burns are wound that are cause because of exposure to.:

  • Excessive Heat
  • Chemicals
  • Fire / Steam
  • Radiation
  • Electricity

TYPES OF BURNS:

  1. THERMAL: caused due to exposure to a hot object or flame.
  2. CHEMICAL: exposure to acid, alkali, or organic substance.
  3. ELECTRICAL: cause due to the conversion of electrical energy into heat energy. The extent depends on.:
    • the type of current,
    • a pathway of flow,
    • local tissue resistance, and
    • lastly on the duration of contact.
  4. RADIATION: consequently result from radiant energy transfer to the body. Thus resulting in the production of cellular toxins.

BURN WOUND ASSESSMENT

  • Classified according to depth of injury & extent of body surface area involved.
  • Burns wounds differentiated depending on the level of dermis and subcutaneous tissue involved
    1. superficial( first – degree)
    2. deep ( second-degree )
    3. full-thickness( third and fourth degree )
degree of burns

SUPERFICIAL BURNS (FIRST DEGREE):-

  • Epidermal tissue only affected.
  • Erythema. blanching on pressure. mild swelling. no vesicles or blister initially.
  • Not much life-threatening. unless a large area involved.
  • i.e., sunburn
first degree burns

DEEP (SECOND DEGREE):-

  • Involves epidermis and the deepest layer of the dermis.
  • Fluid-filled vesicles.: red, shiny, wet, severe pain.
  • Hospitalization is required if burn involves over 25% of the body surface.
  • i.e., tar burn, flame.
high degree burn

FULL THICKNESS (THIRD/FOURTH DEGREE):-

  • Destruction of all skin layers.
  • It requires immediate hospitalization during this type of burn.
  • As a result it is much more life fatal.
  • Dry, waxy, white, rubbery, or hard skin without pain.
  • Exposure to flames, electricity, or chemicals. can cause 3rd-degree burns.

CALCULATION OF BURNED BODY SURFACE AREA:

RULE OF NINES:-

  • Head & Neck = 9%
  • Each upper extremity (Arms) = 9%
  • Each lower extremity (Legs) = 18%
  • Anterior trunk = 18%
  • Posterior trunk = 18%
  • Genitalia (perineum) = 1%
rule of nines
burns

CHANGES OCCURING DUE TO BURNS:-

  • Circulatory disarrangement occurs at the burn site. immediately after a burn injury.
  • Blood flow ceases or decreases because of a constricted blood vessel.
  • Constriction is therefore caused by the release of chemicals by macrophages.
  • Thrombosis of blood vessels can occur. also by further causing necrosis.
  • Fluid shift
  • Curling’s Ulcer
  • Fluid imbalances
  • Fluid remobilization

PHASES OF BURN INJURIES:-

  1. Emergent (24-48 hrs)
  2. Acute
  3. Rehabilitative

SKIN ASSESSMENT:

  • Determine the size and depth of burn injury by assessing skin.
  • The size of injury is firstly estimated in comparison to the total body surface area (TBSA).
  • For e.g., a burn that involves 40% of the TBSA is a 40% burn.
  • Use the rule of nines for the patient whose weight is in normal proportion to their heights without a doubt.

STRANGE MIND

Leave a Reply

Your email address will not be published. Required fields are marked *